The Effects of Cryogenic Treatment on the Properties of Textile Materials
Existing Textile Industry Overview:
In the present day scenario, the textile industry focuses on increasing production speeds, lowering the production cost and improving the properties of textile materials without increasing their cost. Within these limits, industries compete among themselves for a greater market share and a better return on their investment. If there is any compromise on quality to decrease the cost, the long term survival of such textile units will be a questionable matter in this competitive field.
To achieve the above goal, a lot of research has been undertaken by the various R & D staff, to improve quality without economical loss and on the development of new methods/technology/concepts – to improve quality – at reasonable costs.
About Cryogenics Technology:
Cryogenics is the science of materials at low temperatures; at which the properties of materials significantly change. The development of cryogenic treatment of metals and tool steels to extend the life of the machine parts is a mature technology. Machine part life extension has already been proven by research carried out by various R & D teams and also this treatment has been applied to the rings and travellers in a recently carried out project work in this Department (2005). Cryogenic treatment improves the entire mass of metals and alloys treated, not just the surface.
Currently a number of aerospace, automotive and electronic industries in the U.S.A, China and other countries have adopted this process in the regular way to improve the wear resistance of certain materials and composites, cryogenic treatment also makes golf balls travel further and violin strings sound better.
The cryogenic process typically involves a slow cooling component to around 77K holding them for around 24 hrs (soaking) and then slowly warming them back to ambient temperature. Different versions of the treatment have employed different cooling and heating rates. It has also adopted different minimum temperatures and different holding times in the treatment cycle to optimise the effect on different materials/different end uses.
The use of this technique is still growing in India and is mainly aimed at metallic components. Still some work has been done on low temperature effects. The observations on the changes in mechanical properties have led to the following conclusions.
1) Mechanical strength of most polymers increase or remain constant as the temperature is decreased, the elongation to failure decreases to extremely low values at cryogenic temperature.
2) Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) exhibits good mechanical properties at cryogenic temperatures.
The above statements are from a paper by Susheel Kalia(2010) who has investigated the effects of cryo temperatures on the physical properties of different materials.
However our study has moved beyond this towards an analysis the effect of cryogenic treatment on the properties and dyeing behaviours of the textile materials after they have been returned to ambient temperatures.
Colour is an important factor in the ‘quality’ of textile products and if this treatment affects it significantly, then that becomes a factor in determining whether to use the treatment or not.
Download The Effects of Cryogenic Treatment on the Properties of Textile Materials Project Report
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